Over time, deposits of lipid metabolites and calcifications can form on the walls of blood vessels. In principle, this change in the vascular system can occur in all vascular segments of the body. Arteriosclerosis is therefore also described as a progressive vascular disease. The consequences can be constriction and also formation of blood clots up to stroke.
What was studied:
The PESA (Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study, conducted in Spain, investigated the association between different breakfast habits and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as the presence, distribution and extent of atherosclerosis.
4,052 female (35%) and male (65%) volunteers aged 40-54 years were enrolled in the study if they were free of cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease at baseline, were not actively being treated for cancer, had no prior transplants, and had no diseases that could reduce life expectancy to 6 years. All study participants were employees of Santander bank in Madrid.
Results of the study:
Three patterns of breakfast consumption were studied:
- (27% of participants) High-energy breakfast, which contributes to more than 20% of total daily energy consumption.
- (70% of participants) Low-energy breakfast when it contributes to 5-20% of total daily energy expenditure.
- (3% of participants) Forgoing breakfast if it is used for less than 5% of total daily energy expenditure. According to the study, this includes taking coffee, coffee with milk, or other non-alcoholic beverages as a "meal."